The European Journal of Ecopsychology

I’ve written a couple of articles for The European Journal of Ecopsychology (EJE) in the past and I’m delighted to say that I’m a member of the new Editorial Team. The Journal is peer-reviewed and explores “the synthesis of psychological and ecological ideas from a variety of perspectives”. The new Editorial Team will preserve the ethos and approach of the Journal, which I believe is unique.

When I was looking for somewhere the publish my MSc research, I had several quite challenging criteria to meet. Most importantly, I wanted my work to be as accessible as possible to the ecotherapy community. Most academic journals charge high fees to read published articles, which means that unless you have a University account access is difficult. The EJE currently publishes everything online for free.

Cover of The European Journal of Ecopsychology

Because the paper I wanted to publish was based on an MSc dissertation, it was quite long – far longer than most journals would accept. I could have shortened it, loosing what I felt were useful contributions to the field. Paul Stevens, who was until recently the EJE Editor, accepted my submission as it stood and none of the review panel required any cuts.

Ultimately of course it’s the material published in a journal that make it special. Here again the EJE stands out. For example, the current issue includes:

  • Brian Taylor on The generosity of birds: Ecopsychology, animism, and intimate encounter with wild others, and
  • The seven pathways to Nature Connectedness: A focus group exploration by Ryan Lumber, Miles Richardson & David Sheffield.

Previous volumes have been devoted to topics like ecopsychology and the psychedelic experience (Volume 4, 2013) or queering ecopsychology (Volume 3, 2012). These are fascinating subjects, but they are rarely explored in academic journals. The EJE is exciting and innovative; it pushes the boundaries and engages with areas of ecopsychology that might otherwise be ignored.  I’m delighted to pick up the baton from Paul and carry the EJE into the future. I hope you can join me on the journey!

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Philip Shepherd

How can we escape from the heady over-analytic thinking that our culture is caught up in? Philip Shepherd proposes a path to “radical wholeness” that’s grounded in the deep wisdom of the body (Shepherd, 2017).

Western culture has long prioritized abstract rational thinking over what we might call embodied knowing or embodied intelligence. The abstract mode of relating to the world sets us apart from everything else: It sets a clear and inviolable boundary between the ‘self’ and the ‘other’, between me as ‘subject’ and everything else as ‘object’. I’ve referenced many thinkers in past posts who agree that this is nonsense: Amongst others, Eugene Gendlin, Andy Clark, Merleau-Ponty, David Abram, Glen Mazis and Charles Eisenstein.

Philip adds some valuable insights to this ongoing embodied revolution. He explores our sensory capacity, noting the inadequacy of the Western model of five senses and proposes that our primary sense is our ability to sense wholeness; this is what he calls holosapience. Wholeness is not something we need to strive to achieve; it’s not a destination. Paradoxically perhaps, wholeness is both unknowable and fundamental to our being. We cannot objectivity know wholeness, but we can feel it, hence the importance of holosapience. We need to come to rest in the body so that we can be fully present to wholeness and this is facilitated by the grounded sensitivity which forms our embodied intelligence.

fast water flow over rocks

© Author

For me, Philip Shepherd’s special contribution is to provide simple and powerful ways for us to actually experience the reality of our embodied intelligence. One practice struck me as being especially pertinent right now. I’m preparing for a series of public discussions with several thinkers – including Philip – whose work I admire, so I might be forgiven for wanting to present myself well. But there’s a danger that I might slip into what Philip calls ‘presentation mode’, a carefully monitored way of speaking that’s intended to make me sound impressive! We’re all familiar with presentation mode as we use it a lot of the time. It’s driven by our anxiety about not knowing, about sounding like we’re not in control. Philip describes it as speaking from the sternum and suggests moving our awareness to the back of the chest instead. When I try this I sense a shift in how I relate to what I’m saying: It feels more open, grounded and available.

I’m aiming to forgo presentation mode in my forthcoming discussions, choosing grounded sensitivity and presence instead. If you’ve signed up to the Embodiment Conference, you can be the judge of how that works out in practice: I’ll be in conversation with Philip Shepherd on 15th November.

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Charles Eisenstein

Charles Eisenstein is a new voice for me, but his words resonate deeply and fill me with hope. Eisenstein on the gift economy is well worth a read, but I’m going to focus on his more recent work as it relates to embodied ecology.

Stories are powerful; we live by them. I recall hearing once that those who control the stories control reality. For Eisenstein our current world-view is built on the “Story of Separation”. This story is pretty much the version of reality presented by late 19th Century mainstream thinking:

  • “You are a separate individual among other separate individuals in a universe that is separate from you as well”;
  • “There is no purpose, only cause. The universe is at bottom blind and dead”;
  • human beings must “protect ourselves against this hostile universe of competing individuals and impersonal forces, we must exercise as much control as possible” (Eisenstein 2013).

This old story is looking shaky these days, but is still widely believed. It’s familiar after all, and opening our minds to something radically different feels very uncomfortable.

What we need, Eisenstein suggests, is “the Story of Interbeing”, a new story that understands that “our very existence is relational.” We’re not ready for that new story but for many of us the old story no longer rings true, so “we still must traverse, naked, the space between stories” (Eisenstein 2013).

Back lit tree at sunset

Hembury Fort, Devon. © Author.

As activists we sometimes find ourselves using the Story of Separation to make sense of our world. This can be misleading, as we get caught up in a model of reality that’s the fundamental root of the problem. Eisenstein believes that we “need to ground environmentalism on something other than data” and he draws on Deep Ecology to explore an alternative:

“When we as a society learn to see the planet and everything on it as beings deserving of respect – in their own right and not just for their use to us – then we won’t need to appeal to climate change to do all the best things that the climate change warriors would have us do” (Eisenstein, 2015).

The work of Charles Eisenstein, David Abram, Glen Mazis and myself is rooted in single insight: We are relational earthbodies, fundamentally intertwined with the more-then-human-world. This is the truth at the heart of the embodied ecology that’s emerging.

I’ll be talking to Charles Eisenstein on 13th November as part of the on line Embodiment Conference.

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Glen Mazis

Glen Mazis is a philosopher and poet whose writing frequently merges both skills. I came across his book Earthbodies (2002) during my PhD research on embodied knowing and found it hugely exciting. Mazis explains that ‘bodies’ are much more than we realize. We think of our bodies as bound by the surface of our skin, what Andy Clark calls the ‘skin-bag body’. Mazis, like Clark, believes that’s an illusion, and to explain why he introduces the term ‘earthbody’.

In the West we typically emphasize ownership of objectified bodies. Bodies are beautiful, ugly, fit, sick, strong or weak. And somehow ‘owned’. But “an earthbody isn’t ‘yours,’ it’s the world’s”. For Mazis “you don’t ‘have’ this body. You are part of a dynamic process that we might call ‘earthbodying,’ if we weren’t so used to referring to ourselves with nouns” (Mazis, 2002).

The term earthbodies describes a process more than an object. Earthbodies are “sensual, perceptual and feeling conductors through which richer meaning flows than we can grasp intellectually” (Mazis, 2002). Mazis emphasizes how fluidity and connectedness constitute our embodiment. Countless threads of connection pass though earthbodies, weaving each individual into the wider fabric of the world.

To write of the “fabric of the world” is particularly appropriate because it’s a phrase used by a philosopher that Mazis is profoundly inspired by; Merleau-Ponty. Several strands of thought come together at this point: Mazis, Abram and Gendlin all draw on Merleau-Ponty and all four argue for some notion of the ‘body’ as an open, interactive process.

Conventional notions of the body in Western culture stand in blunt opposition to that radical notion. As Mazis points out, the idea that you might be an open, process in fluid interaction with the world “may sound fantastic to you because we have been taught to close our bodies, lock our knees, and brace ourselves for life and its tasks” (Mazis, 2002). This numbing shut-down means that most people “fail to experience the pull, the tides, of the earth’s motion which stream through us”.

River and rocks in dappled sunlight.

Teign Gorge, Devon. © Author.

Merleau-Ponty distinguishes between the objective body – the body regarded as an object – and the phenomenal body, which refers to my (or your) body as I (or you) actually experience it. But we typically blur that distinction, experiencing our bodies as enclosed objects that we ‘own’. As a result many people “live much of the time in a state of disconnection and dislocation … and have little sense of where they are, what they feel and what they sense, especially not in the myriad depths and dimensions of the perceptual” (2004).

Mazis points to another way of experiencing our embodied condition that allow us to be more caring, more environmentally aware, more open and more loving. Mazis seeks to “reveal the dance of the planet”, so that we – as earthbodies – can come to experience the earth’s constant motion as more than merely physical: It’s also “emotional, imaginative, spiritual, linguistic, communal, and natural” (Mazis, 2002).

I’ll be speaking to Glen as part of the forthcoming on-line Embodiment Conference which is free to attend.

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David Abram

David Abram’s first book, The Spell of the Sensuous, (1996) has influenced pretty much everyone in the world of ecopsychology and environmental philosophy. Its themes are summed up in the subtitle: Perception and Language in a More-than-human world. By way of introduction, I’ll touch on each of those themes.

Perception
Abram is more than just a philosopher; he’s also an ecologist, anthropologist and slight-of-hand magician. That unusual combination gave Abram some unique insights about perception:

“The task of the magician is to startle our senses
and free us from outmoded ways of thinking.”
(Interview with Scott London, 2018).

Abram’s interest in perception led him to Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology and he develops that into an embodied environmental philosophy. Abram challenges conventional ideas about subject and object, inside and out. He reveals that our perception is always participatory; it involves “an active interplay, or coupling, between the perceiving body and that which it perceives” (Abram, 1996). Thus he comes to understand the body as “a sort of open circuit that completes itself only in things, in others, in the encompassing earth” (Abram, 1996). There are echoes here of Eugene Gendlin who understood the body as extending beyond the skin into “a vastly larger system” (Gendlin, 1997).

Language
It’s not only humans who have a living language. Abram suggests that “various animals and other natural forms today speak in their own unique dialects” (Abram, 1996). Oral cultures fully appreciate this reality; they’re aware that we’re “corporeally embedded” in a “living landscape” (Abram, 1996). But the influence of writing has led us into a “more abstract mode of thinking” that conceals our sensuous, embodied relationship to the more-than-human world (Abram, 1996).

Rainbow in waterfall over rocks.

Wentworth Falls. (Copyright of author)

A more-than-human world
We are part of a more-than-human community: “the animals, the plants, the trees, even whole forests” (2018). Every member of this wider community has its own wisdom and way of being.

“Each place has its own mind, its own psyche. Oak, madrone, Douglas fir, red-tailed hawk, serpentine in the sandstone, a certain scale to the topography, drenching rains in the winter, fog off-shore in the winter, salmon surging in the streams – all these together make up a particular state of mind, a place-specific intelligence shared by all the humans that dwell therein … ” (Abram, 1996).

Abram was one of the first to recognize the importance of animism for ecological thinking. Animism had long been dismissed as a primitive error, but by the early 1990’s Religious Studies scholar Graham Harvey had identified it as a powerful influence amongst Neo-Pagans. Abram was on a parallel track to Harvey, following the thread through older, indigenous cultures.

Abram continues to explore these themes in Becoming Animal: An Earthly Cosmology (2010), another book I highly recommend. It’s important to note that Abram is a practical philosopher and his work with the Alliance for Wild Ethics is perhaps as important as his writing.

I’m delighted to say that I’ll be interviewing David Abram as part of the ecology thread during The Embodiment Conference. This on-line event takes place from 13 – 24 November. It’s free to join, but numbers are limited.

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How to Save the World: Embodied Ecology

The UN spelt it out this week: “Climate change is running faster than we are – and we are running out of time.” Most of us know climate change is an unfolding disaster, but we still don’t change. Why? It’s not what you know, it’s the way that you know it. We know the facts and figures in our heads, but don’t – or can’t – engage on an embodied, gut level.

I first explored these idea in ‘Sacred Ecology’ and it’s still my most popular publication even though it’s almost 25 years old! I wrote about ‘somatic knowing’:

“Besides the cerebral knowledge we all possess, the words & ideas stored in our heads, there is a deeper knowledge held within the tissue of our bodies. It is a somatic, physical knowing which comes from direct experience. This is the knowledge of faith, of emotion, of the gut feeling”.

Maori sculpture in Aotearoa

Maori sculpture. Aotearoa.

Fast forward a quarter of a century, and I’m still exploring the same territory. I’ve found many allies in that time, people like David Abram, Glen Mazis, Charles Eisenstein and Philip Shepherd. You may not know them yet, but trust me – these are some of the key thinkers in what we might call embodied ecology. I’ll be talking to these four as part of the free on-line Embodiment Conference in November. The conference will include over 100 speakers from disciplines as diverse as yoga, coaching, meditation and therapy.

The Embodiment Conference takes place from 13 – 24 November. It’s free to join, but numbers are limited so sign up now if you don’t want to miss it.

In preparation for the event, my next few blog posts will introduce the four thinkers I’ll be interviewing during the conference. Next up will be David Abram, cultural ecologist, geophilosopher, author of ‘The Spell of the Sensuous’ and a source of inspiration for many!

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Smart, Helpful Tips for Better Sleep and Better Health

I occasionally host a guest post from an expert on a particular topic. This post is by  Cheryl Conklin of Wellnesscentral.info.


For many of us, sleep might seem like a waste of many hours. We’re lying down in a bed with our eyes closed when we could be doing work, getting things accomplished, and changing the world — or, at the very least, catching up on our latest show on Netflix. If we think this, we would be wrong, though. Improving our sleep habits will improve our lives in many ways, including boosting our mental health. Here are a few tips on how to create a sleep routine.

Lack of Sleep

First, a little more on the dangers of not getting enough sleep. A lack of sleep can cause long-term issues like high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and depression. It can also lead to a greater risk of depression and anxiety, increased risk of heart disease and cancer, impaired memory, a reduced immune system, and weight gain.

The point; you need more sleep. To create a mental health-boosting sleep routine, you need to know how much sleep you should be getting. The recommended amount, however, is based on your age. The National Sleep Foundation recommends seven to nine hours for everyone 18 years old and older. Of course, you may need even more if you have been staying up late for a while or if you have extra stress in your life.

Signs that you are running a sleep deficit include feeling tired throughout the day, using caffeine just to make it through the day, not sleeping well, not waking up refreshed, and getting drowsy while you’re driving or watching TV.

Creating a New Sleep Routine

If you’re not getting enough sleep, try creating a new sleep routine. First, set a regular bedtime and stick to it. Your body will respond well to the consistency. You’re also more likely to get good sleep if you schedule your rest just like anything else you want to get done. You should also stay away from caffeine, even if you think you need it to stay awake during the day. If you drink it too late in the afternoon, you’ll likely still be awake at night.

You can also help your body relax before bed by taking a hot bath and meditating for a few minutes. Create a calm, soothing environment with a temperature that works well for you. You should also get any preparations for the next day done about an hour before bedtime if possible.

Here’s another tip that might be hard to follow, but it will be good both to help you relax and clear your mind; turn off your electronic devices about an hour before bedtime. The artificial light isn’t good for you, and you also want to have some time to wind down without worrying about social media or what is happening online.

sleeping woman

Other Sleep Aids

If you’re still having trouble sleeping, a few other aids may help you get the rest you need to keep you in good mental health. Several over-the-counter sleep medications can work well. (The National Sleep Foundation recommends using these for a maximum of four weeks.) If your problems seem more serious, you should see a doctor about your sleeping issues. They can check for underlying health problems, such as depression or a thyroid problem. They can also refer you to a sleep specialist, especially if they suspect a sleep disorder such as sleep apnea.

Following these tips should get you into a good sleep routine that will be beneficial for both your mental and physical health. This will help you perform better at home and at work and will put you on the road to a happy life. Now, get some sleep!

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Nature and the therapeutic relationship

I completed my Masters dissertation back in 2014, so it was interesting to re-work it into a journal article several years later. My question was whether working in a natural environment had an impact on the therapeutic relationship. It does, of course, but how?

The existing literature noted seven key themes:

  • 3-way relationship;
  • Nature and the therapeutic process;
  • Symbolism, metaphor and synchronicity;
  • Power;
  • Self/other, inside/outside;
  • Nature and the therapeutic process;
  • Boundaries and containers.

I found all of those in my research, as well as two completely new themes; the turning point and transference. The term ‘transference’ comes from Freud and it describes the phenomena of ‘transferring’ our feelings about someone in our past to a different person in the present. The person in the past is someone of deep importance to us, typically our father or mother. I’d guess we’ve all experienced that, even if we didn’t realize what was going on at the time! My research found something rather odd and potentially very significant: It’s possible to transfer strong feelings about some significant person in our past to a natural object or phenomena. A tree, for example, can come to represent someone’s father or stormy wild weather can powerfully evoke emotional echoes of a mother/son relationship. I wonder if this plays into the idea of ‘Mother Nature’?

people walking in the woods
There’s a key moment in therapy in nature, a turning point where the client and therapist pass a threshold and enter into a liminal space. I draw parallels with anthropological theory about rites of passage, which highlights the importance of that in-between space where the initiate is neither who they were nor who they are to become (Van Gennep). In a rite of passage there’s a midpoint of transition where, for example, the person is no longer a girl, but not yet a women. The anthropologist Victor Turner emphasized the importance of this central liminal phase where the ritual participants are “betwixt and between” (1967).
What has all that to do with therapy? Turner’s notion of liminal space seems to be closely related to what psychotherapist Donald Winnicott calls “transitional space”. Transitional space is “is an intermediate area of experiencing, to which inner reality and external life both contribute” (Winnicott, 1971). Is where therapeutic healing happens?

I’m ending this post with some big questions left open. No apologizes for that: I did the same in my dissertation! Sometimes the value of research comes from the questions it asks rather than the answers it claims to offer. I’ll end here with the same quote from Merleau-Ponty that concluded my dissertation:

“[t]he accomplished work is … not the work which exists in itself, like a thing, but the work which reaches the viewer and invites him to take up the gesture which created it” (1993).

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Left brain – right brain: In therapy

In my previous post I outlined some of the key differences between the left and right hemispheres of the brain and touched on what that might mean for psychotherapy. I’ll now delve a little deeper into that mystery.

While my previous post was based on well established neuroscience, some of what follows is more speculative. That said, it’s all grounded in current scientific understanding.

As I explained last time, part of the role of the right brain is to keep us alert to danger. The right hemisphere is specialized for wide-angle sensory awareness that’s good for scanning for threats: We might say that the right brain is naturally suspicious. Perhaps it’s no surprise that research has found a correlation between depression, anxiety and increased activity in the right hemisphere. A lot of that activity is in the frontal lobe, a region concerned with reward, attention, planning, and motivation. There’s also a high level of right hemisphere activation in PTSD and when childhood abused adults recall unpleasant memories. Another strand of research suggests that PTSD is linked to poor communication between the hemispheres (Cozolino, 2017).

Brain scans

How might therapy help balance and integrate the two hemispheres? When I work with clients, I’m constantly monitoring several channels of communication. The most obvious strand to watch for is the difference what is said and the way it’s said. The structure of language, the way sentences are strung together, is largely a left brain activity, but our tone of voice is more involved with right brain processes. Body language and facial expressions are also more under right brain control. If, or rather, when, there’s some inconsistency between the simple content of what’s said and the wider context, I’ll need to make a judgement call. Suppose a client says “I’m fine about that”, but their facial expression, body language or tone say ‘I’m really not OK”. I might decide to reflect that back to them: It’s as if I’m acting as a mediator between the right and left hemispheres.

Peter Afford suggests that Experiential Focusing – the foundation of my therapeutic approach – may work by promoting the integration of the left and right hemispheres (Afford, 2014). Focusing invites us to drop our awareness into our physical bodies and check for a ‘felt sense’, a feeling in the body that carries meaning. We then sit with any felt senses that arise and gradually begin to engage with them through language. A felt sense is often just a vague sensation at first and I’ll be curious about where it is in my body, its size and shape, and whether it has a colour or a particular emotional tone. I’m initiating a dialogue between an emotional, bodily sensation, which are right brain processes, and the more left brain activities of labelling and seeking details. The next stage is to deepen that dialogue, literally asking the felt sense what it’s about. The linguistic right hemisphere is engaging in dialogue with the more embodied left.

I’ve been watching the therapeutic process over the last couple of weeks and I think I’m seeing lots of occasions where I’m helping my client with some left/right brain integration. I’m not saying this explains how therapy works; there are many parallel processes going on all the time, many of which we may currently be oblivious to. However, I believe the work of balancing and integrating the left and right hemispheres is a key part of therapy and having a greater awareness of how that might happen can enhance therapeutic practice.

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Left brain – right brain: Beyond the myth

Back in the 70’s there was a lot of pop-science chatter about the left and right brain hemispheres. Right brained people, it claimed are creative, while left brained types are analytical. Pretty cool, huh? Cool, but inaccurate and misleading. We now know much more, and the research reveals something much more exciting!

While most systems are integrated across both brain hemispheres there are real differences between the two, but it’s not simply “emotion on the right, reason on the left”. When we talk about the right/left lateralization of the brain, we’re saying that some functions are carried out in one hemisphere more than the other; it’s about specialization. While there are differences between right handed, left handed and ambidextrous people, in general the specialization is as I describe it below.

Areas of the right hemisphere are specialized to deal with aspects of the physical and emotional self. Strong emotions like anxiety and terror activate the right brain. The right hemisphere has many more connections to the emotional heart of the brain, the limbic system. It’s also more connected to the rest of the body, notably the viscera – your gut.

The left hemisphere is specialized in organizing the conscious linguistic self. It’s better at problem solving and is inclined towards positive emotions. The left brain is the more social of the two halves: It’s engaged when someone approaches you and also when you’re angry with someone. The left brain thinks in a linear, sequential way and has less of a connection with the rest of the body than the right brain.

Graphic of the brain

We all have an instinctive ‘fight, flight, freeze’ response to danger, and the right brain is tied into that. Because it processes information in a holistic way, the right brain quickly gets the big picture, and it’s always checking; is that picture safe or possibly dangerous? Perhaps because we’re wired to look for danger, the right hemisphere is more concerned with negative emotions. When you look at a distressing image, the right hemisphere is activated and depression seems to be linked with increased right brain activity. Many right brain specializations are concerned with things outside our immediate awareness, so we can think of it as the home of the unconscious mind. As Louis Cozolino explains:

“When we are awake, the right hemisphere silently provides information to the left, which we experience as intuition, feelings, and visual images” (Cozolino, 2017).

Both halves of the brain have a vital role to play, and mental wellbeing requires a balance and integration between the two. All this has profound implications for psychotherapy. Anxiety, depression and psychosis have all been linked to poor integration between the left and right brain, so does therapy help integration? The short answer is yes, but a more thoughtful discussion will follow in my next blog post.

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